Indicators

The indicators used in TASAI were determined in three stages namely preexisting knowledge, industry survey and lessons from pilot:

1. Pre-existing knowledge: First we surveyed the existing literature on the building block of enabling environments for agro-industries. We then consulted with various key seed sector informants to come up with a long list long list of relevant variables. Consultation with several established indexes guided the target numbers and classification of indicators.

2. Industry survey: Second, we conducted a survey of African seed sector players to evaluate the importance of each indicators resulting in a smaller subset of key indicators. The survey was completed by 167 respondents including private seed companies (53.9%), non-governmental organizations (6.5%), government departments (15%), and research institutions (18.6).

3. Lessons from pilot: In 2013-2014 TASAI concluded pilot studies in Kenya, Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Key lessons from these pilot studies both sharpened the focus on the index and added four new indicators.

The table below shows 22 indicators that form the core of TASAI. You can click on each indicator to see an expanded description of its role, measurement and sources of information. In addition to these core indicators, some countries may have a few other indicators that are critical to the local seed sector. Some indicators are measured independently for each focus crop while others are sector wide. The last column shows the hypothesized impact of increased indicator performance on seed access by smallholder farmers.

  Indicators Theory of change Crop-specific Impact on seed access
A. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
A1
  • Adequacy of active breeders

    Number of active breeders in public and private sectors.Breeders may work at national research institutions, universities, or seed companies; breeders employed by foreign-owned seed companies who are based outside of the country are excluded from count.

A functioning seed system needs vibrant public and private breeding programs to develop improved varieties that respond to farmer and consumer needs. The number of active breeders is indicative of the level of investment in research and development.

Yes +
A2

The number of varieties released is a good measure of outputs from the variety development and release system. More varieties released often translates to more varieties commercialized thereby increasing farmers' choice.

Yes +
A3
  • Number of varieties with 'special' attributes/ features

    Number (and percentage of total) of released varieties with features such as:
    1. Climate-smart (e.g., drought-tolerance)
    2. Use-related (e.g., quick cooking)
    3. Nutrition-enhanced
    4. Industry-demanded
    Information is sourced from variety catalogue. Calculated as percentage of all varieties released in the last 3 years

In addition to higher yields, new varieties often carry desired traits that are of value to farmers and/or final consumers. These traits include climate smartness, disease/pest resistance and nutrition-enhancements.

Yes +
A4
  • Availability of basic seed.

    Volume, sources, and procedures to access basic seed; based on information reported by seed companies and the National Agricultural Research System (NARS).

Basic seed, also known as foundation seed, is the parent material required for the production of commercial seed. Timely access to sufficient and high quality basic seed is of critical importance, especially for small seed companies that cannot maintain their own basic seed.

Yes +
B. INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS
B1

Competition breeds excellence! The presence of more active seed companies increases competition and creates incentives for companies to innovate and improve. A vibrant seed sector depends on a robust private sector in which seed companies invest in the development, production, processing and marketing of improved varieties to farmers.

Yes +
B2
  • Quantity of seed produced and sold.

    Volume of certified seed produced and sold by crop. Information is obtained from two sources: (i) aggregated data from seed company responses and (ii) seed production volumes certified by the government.

Holding everything else constant, the more seed produced and sold, smallholder farmers have more and better choices of improved seed.

Yes +
B3

For every crop, the number of varieties sold in any given year is a good indicator or the breadth of farmers' choice. In addition, a vibrant seed sector should retire old varieties as newer (better) ones become available and discontinue varieties that fail to meet farmer needs.

Yes +
B4
  • Average age of varieties sold.

    Average age of varieties sold by companies/producers based on the year the variety was released.Data sourced from national variety catalogue.Calculated as simple or volume-weighted average, depending on data availability.

Newer varieties often outperform older varieties as they are bred for traits that respond to farmer, consumer and industry-demands. In vibrant seed systems, farmers regularly replace old varieties with new ones.

Yes -
B5
  • Market concentration.

    Market share of top four seed companies (volume-based) and market concentration as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI).

Competition among seed companies benefits farmers via lower prices, wider choices, increased innovation and better customer service.

Yes -
B6
  • Market share of state-owned seed company.

    Market share of state-owned seed company calculated based on reported volume of sales as a percentage of total seed sales, by crop. (Note: State-owned company may be former parastatal, public university, or NARI subsidiary, registered as a seed company and is engaged in the production and marketing of certified seed.)

In some countries, public entities are still active players in the marketing and sale of certified seed. Such state-owned companies often benefit from preferential treatment, less stringent enforcement of regulations, access to competitor information, and indirect production subsidies. Collectively these privileges can result in unfair competition against purely private seed companies.

Yes -
B7

Efficient seed import and export processes extend the seed market beyond national borders. While seed companies benefit from an expanded market, farmers can access a wider range of varieties from across the region.

Yes +
C. SEED POLICY AND REGULATIONS
C1

Plant variety release is the process during which new varieties undergo various tests including yield, value for cultivation and use, and distinctness, uniformity and stability. Varieties that meet the test are approved for release by the National Variety Release Committee. A vibrant seed sector has a functional variety release system that is well understood by the relevant actors and is followed diligently. Lengthy and/or costly variety release processes can limit the number of released varieties which can adversely affect farmer choice.

Yes -
C2

Well-functioning formal seed sectors have effective coordinating institutions that work well together, following rules and procedures stipulated in clearly defined legal instruments that are updated regularly.

No +/-
C3

African countries are increasingly opening their borders to regional trade (e.g., African Continental Free Trade Agreement). Harmonizing national regulations with regional ones opens up regional markets to seed companies and increases choice to smallholder farmers by facilitating the process of variety release across the region and encouraging seed trade.

No +
C4

Counterfeit seed threatens the seed sector in two important ways: one, it reduces farmers' confidence in certified seed after farmers unknowingly purchase inferior quality grain labeled as certified seed. Two, it threatens the success of efforts to increase adoption of improved varieties.

No +
C5

Seed subsidies are intended as a short or medium-term measure to encourage farmers to adopt improved crop varieties. The design and execution of subsidy programs, in terms of the scale, targeting, distribution arrangements and payment systems, may contribute to the development of the seed market in positive ways or it may be disruptive to market forces.

No +/-
D. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT
D1

Well-functioning national seed trade associations play a key role in representing the interests of the industry and engaging with government.

No +
D2

Seed inspection services ensure that certified commercial seed meets the regulatory quality standards. To provide adequate inspection services requires sufficient numbers of well-resourced inspectors.

No +
E. SERVICE TO SMALLHOLDER FARMERS
E1

Well-functioning agricultural extension services are critical to the successful adoption of improved seeds by smallholder farmers.

No +
E2
  • Concentration of agro-dealer network.

    Concentration of agro-dealer network as measured by number of registered agro-dealers, ratio of agrodealers/household, and average number of agro-dealers seed companies work with.

Agro-dealers play a key role in closing the last mile in Africa's seed distribution systems and are often the main point of sale for certified seed.

Yes +
E3

Because most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa are small-scale, making seed available in small, more affordable packages is a good way to increase adoption rates among smallholder farmers.

Yes +
E4

Seed-to-grain is an indicator of the relative cost of seed. This data point is important as many smallholder farmers end up making a choice between purchasing seed from the formal sector or planting grain.

Yes -



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