Country Portals

For countries currently covered by TASAI, each portal summarizes key information and external links on the formal seed sector. Click on tabs below to view each country.

The Seed Industry in the DRC

Overview of the Agriculture industry

  • Total area: 2,344,858 square km
  • Agricultural land: 11.4% of total land area
  • Arable land: 3.1% of total land area
  • Population: 83.3 million, 16th most populated country in the world
  • GDP (2017): USD 67.99 Billion
  • GDP growth (2017): 2.8%
  • Agriculture % of GDP: 21.1%
  • Main food crops: cassava, plantain, maize, rice, groundnuts, beans

Seed industry documents

Agriculture sector documents

Key institutions in the seed industry in DRC

  • Association de Productuer de Distributeurs d' Intrants Agricoles du Congo (APDIAC): Association bringing together seed producers in the North Kivu province
  • Association de Productuers Semenciers du Katanga (APSKA): Association bringing together seed producers in Katanga province
  • Technical Commission for Admission to the Catalogue (CTAC): Committee under SENASEM responsible for variety release and registration
  • National Institute of Study and Agricultural Research (INERA): National Agricultural Research Institution mandated to develop plant varieties in the country
  • National Seed Service (SENASEM): Government regulatory agency for the seed industry
  • Union Nationale de Productuers de Semences du Congo (UNAPSCO): National Association bringing together seed producers across the country
  • Université de Lubumbashi (UNILU): University of Lubumbashi, based in Katanga province engaged in plant breeding activities

List of active Seed companies in the DRC

  • Ets Job seed company, based in North Kivu province
  • Ets Buhendwa, based in North Kivu province
  • NASECO Seed, based in North Kivu province
  • Plantation Anany, based in North Kivu province
  • Ets Semence Kimana, based in North Kivu
  • Ets Baraka, based in North Kivu province
  • Agri Forge, based in South Kivu province
  • SeedCo, based in Haut-Katanga province
  • Zamseed, based in Haut-Katanga province
  • Pannar, based in Haut-Katanga province
  • Mbeko Shamba, based in Lualaba province

The Seed Industry in Ethiopia

Overview of the Agriculture sector

  • Population: 99.4 million (2015)
  • GDP: USD 61.54 Billion (2015)
  • GDP growth (2015): 9.6%
  • Agriculture contributes 50% to total GDP (2015)
  • Agriculture constitutes 85% of exports

Key reports on seed industry

Seed Policy instruments

Institutions in the seed industry in Ethiopia

  • Agriculture Transformation Agency (ATA) is a government agency created to help accelerate the growth and transformation of Ethiopia’s agriculture sector.
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Federal Co-operative Agency (FCA) is a government agency mandated to lead the development of the co-operative movement in Ethiopia.
  • Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) in Ethiopia: ISSD Ethiopia is implemented under the umbrella of the Bilateral Ethiopian Netherlands Effort for Food, Income and Trade Partnership (BENEFIT Partnership). The project goal is to improve female and male smallholder farmer access to and use of quality seed of new, improved, and/or farmer preferred varieties to sustainably increase agricultural productivity.
  • Ethiopian Seed Association umbrella association of private and public seed companies, co-operatives and seed enterprises in Ethiopia.

Seed companies in Ethiopia

Members of the Ethiopian Seed Association:

Other Resources

The Seed Industry in Ghana

Overview of the Agriculture sector

  • Population: 27.4 million (2015)
  • GDP: USD 37.54 Billion (2015)
  • GDP growth (2015): 3.9%
  • Agriculture GDP growth (2015): 2.8% (provisional)
  • Agriculture contributes 20.7% to total GDP (2015 est)
  • Key food crops production in 2009: cassava (12.2 million tons), yams (5.8 million tons), plantain (3.6 million tons), maize (1.6 million tons).
  • National planned budget for agriculture in FY 2015/2016 was USD 1.49 Billion, of which 85% is for the Fertilizer Subsidy Programme and the Agriculture Mechanization Support Centres.

Key reports on seed industry

Seed Policy instruments

  • National Seed Policy (2013)
  • National Seed Plan (2015): formulated to serve as the implementation plan of the National Seed Policy. The plan has four sets of interventions: (i) direct private sector interventions, (ii) supportive services for seed industry growth, (iii) addressing gaps in significant components in the seed industry, and (iv) seed sector coordination and governance
  • Plants and Fertilizer Act 2010: Part II focuses on Seeds and addresses registration of seed importers and exporters, production and marketing of seeds, seed quality control and establishment of the National Seed Council, whose roles include setting up the Variety Release Committee
  • Plant Breeders Bill addresses all issues related to plant breeders, including the application and conditions of a variety, application and protection of breeders’ rights, scope and duration of breeders’ rights and variety denomination and appeals, among other areas
  • Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regulations including Regulation C/REG.4/05/2008 on Harmonization of the Rules Governing Quality Control, Certification and Marketing of Plant Seeds and Seedlings in the ECOWAS Region which covers eleven major crops - maize, pearl millet, rice, sorghum, cassava, Irish potato, yam, cowpea, groundnut, onion and tomato.

Institutions in the seed industry in Ghana

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MoFA)regulatory oversight over the seed sector and exercises oversight over the formal seed sector. MoFA consists of different institutions, boards, and directorates. The Directorate of Crop Services (DCS) is responsible for facilitating the development and distribution of improved planting materials to farmers in collaboration with research and extension services providers as well as the private sector.
  • Savannah Agriculture Research Institute (SARI): research, breeding and release of varieties
  • Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Directorate (PPRSD) : registration and certification of foundation seed
  • National Seed Trade Association of Ghana: association launched in June 2015
  • West Africa Seed Committee (WASC) implements regulations on seed quality control, certification and marketing under the ECOWAS Seed Harmonization Regulations
  • The Seed Producers Association of Ghana (SEEDPAG) is a private association of seed producers that includes 600 of the 1,500 private certified seed producers in Ghana.

Seed companies in Ghana

  • AbabioFarms
  • Antika Company Limited
  • Yonifah Seeds Limited
  • Agri Commercial Services Limited
  • Wienco/RMG Ghana, http://www.wienco.com/
  • Ohumpong Invest Company Limited
  • Bruckner Farms
  • PAG Farms
  • Mabert Seed Company Limited
  • Pee Farms
  • Heritage Seeds Company Limited
  • Legacy Crop Improvement Centre, https://www.lcicgh.org/
  • Savanna Seed Services Company Limited
  • M & B Seeds and Agricultural Services Ghana Limited
  • Lexbok Investments Limited
  • Alpha Seeds
  • Innovations Village Seed Company
  • Agri Seed Limited
  • Meridian Seeds and Nurseries Gardens Ltd, http://meridianseedsgh.com/

Other Resources

The Seed industry in Kenya

Overview of the Agriculture sector

  • Population: 43 million (2014)
  • GDP growth (2015): 5.6%
  • GDP (2015): KES 6,244 Billion (approx. USD 62.4 Billion)
  • Agriculture GDP growth (2015): 5.6%, 7th fastest sector
  • Agriculture contributes 24% to total GDP
  • Agriculture constitutes 60% of total exports
  • Key crops production in 2015: Maize (42.5 Million bags/ 3.86 Million metric tons), Tea (399,000 tons), and Horticulture (238,700 tons).
  • National budget allocation to agriculture in FY 2015/2016 was KES 63.481 Billion (USD 635 Million)
  • Number of varieties in National Variety Catalogue (2016): Maize (303), Tea (64), Common beans (45), Wheat (40), Sorghum (40)

Key Reports on the Seed Industry

Seed Policy instruments

  • Kenya National Seed Policy (2010) gives direction to seed sub-sector development in Kenya, with the aim of sustainably availing high-quality seed and planting material for farmers across the country.
  • Seed and Plants Varieties Act, 2013 (CAP 326) empowers the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) to undertake these activities as well as regulate the importation and exportation of seeds.
  • Seed and Plant Varieties Amendment Bill, 2016
  • Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services Act 2012 established KEPHIS as a regulatory body for the protection of planting material, seeds and agricultural produce.
  • Plant Protection Act (Cap. 324) defines the rules for the importation of plants, plant products and other regulated articles.
  • Crops Act (2013) defines the Schedule of crops with (i) breeding programs with compulsory certification, (ii) breeding programs with voluntary certification, and (iii) with no breeding program
  • COMESA Seed Trade Harmonization Regulations 2014 aims to harmonize seed systems across the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) partner states.

Key Institutions

  • Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services (KEPHIS) is the government parastatal responsible for quality assurance of agricultural inputs and produce. Key services offered by KEPHIS include seed certification services, phytosanitary services and analytical laboratory services.
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries is responsible for the formulation, implementation and monitoring of agricultural policies, legislation and regulations.
  • Plant Protection Services Unit, State Department of Agriculture, in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries: responsible for Post-harvest management, herbicides and pesticides advisory services; Migratory pest control services; Phytosanitary and Quality Assurance services.
  • Seed Traders Association of Kenya (STAK)  is the umbrella association of seed stakeholders in Kenya, with the mission to represent and promote the interest and competitiveness of the seed industry through advocacy, provision of information and capacity building. STAK had 36 member organizations in 2016.
  • Kenya Seed Company is the semi-autonomous government agency incorporated in 1956. Its mandate is to research, develop, market and avail certified top quality, high yielding agricultural seeds of various varieties within Kenya, the Eastern African region and beyond.
  • Kenya Seed Sector Platform is a collaboration between Agri Experience, Kenya Markets Trust and other seed stakeholders from across Kenya. Platform seeks to help Kenya’s farmers access multiple choices of high quality seed of improved crop varieties each season, reliably and on time. The Platform provides information on the actors in the seed industry, seed varieties that have been commercialized, among other information.
  • Mbegu Choice is an online tool with a searchable database on different crop varieties, with various desirable characteristics suitable for specific agro-ecological zones.

Seed companies in Kenya (2016)

Companies producing the four crop seeds in Kenya:

Other Resources

The Seed Industry in Malawi

Overview of the Agriculture sector

  • Population: 17.22 million (2015)
  • GDP growth (2015): 2.8%
  • GDP (2015): USD 6.4 Billion

Seed industry reports

Seed policy instruments in Malawi

Key institutions in the seed sector in Malawi

  • Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development
  • Seed Trade Association of Malawi (STAM) is an association of a consortium of quality oriented entities involved with and dealing in seed production, processing, transporting, distributing and marketing, was established in September 2004.  The mandate of the association is to strengthen the seed industry through contribution to relevant agricultural policies leading to economic development of Malawi in order to promote rural development.
  • National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi (NASFAM) is the largest smallholder owned membership organization in Malawi. It is founded on the principles of collective action and is democratically governed by its members. As part of its commercial activities, NASFAM is engaged in the production and sale of certified seed.
  • Farmers’ Union of Malawi (FUM) is an umbrella body of farmers and farmer organizations in Malawi which was established in 2003 under the Trustees Incorporation with the aim of creating a conducive policy environment for farmers in Malawi. It is founded on three key operational areas namely; Institutional development, Policy and advocacy, and Agribusiness and market access.
  • Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (CARS)

Seed companies

  • SeedCo Malawi
  • Monsanto Malawi
  • National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi (NASFAM)
  • Funwe Seeds Ltd
  • Global Seeds
  • Pannar Seed Malawi
  • Other Resources

    The Seed Industry in Mozambique

    Overview of the Agriculture sector

    • Population: 27.98 million (2015) Number of farms in the country: 4.3 million
    • GDP growth (2015): 6.6%
    • GDP (2015): USD 14.81 Billion
    • Top agriculture exports by value: tobacco, raw sugar and cashew nuts
    • Agriculture value added (as % of GDP) in 2013: 28.7%
    • Number of farms in the country: 4.3 million
    • Key food crops production in 2014: maize, cassava, groundnuts, rice, Nhemba beans
    • Share of public expenditure allocated to food and agriculture in 2013: 7.5% (Source: FAO MAFAP)

    Seed industry reports

    Seed policy instruments in Mozambique

    Key institutions in the seed sector in Mozambique

    Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA)

    Institute for Agricultural Research in Mozambique (IIAM) is the leading research institution in the agriculture sector in Mozambique representing two thirds of the investment in this sector and capacity in human resources at national level.

    National Seed Authority is responsible for seed matters in the Ministry of Agriculture. NSA is mandated to control the quality of domestic and imported seed and variety release and registration, among other functions.

    The Seed Industry in Senegal

    Overview of the Agriculture sector

    • Population: 15.13 million (2015)
    • GDP: USD 13.61 Billion (2015)
    • GDP growth (2015): 6.5%
    • Agriculture constitutes 85% of exports

    Key reports on seed industry

    Institutions in the seed industry in Senegal

    • West Africa Seed Program (WASP): WASP was initiated in 2012 through USAID’s regional partner, the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF/WECARD).  WASP aims to increase the production of quality-improved certified seeds in West Africa’s seed supply from 12 percent to 25 percent by 2017.
    • West Africa Seed Alliance (WASA) Seed Project : The Seeds Project, part of the West Africa Seed Alliance (WASA), was created to enable the transformation of West African agriculture from subsistence farming to profitable, self-sustaining and competitive commercial agriculture. CNFA implemented the five-year project, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), with partners ICRISAT and Iowa State University. The project sought to modernize seed distribution systems, facilitate smallholder farmer access to improved seed varieties, improve seed production technologies, and strengthen links to credit and markets. Specifically, The Seeds Project strengthened West Africa’s seed system across Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Senegal.

    The Seed Industry in the Republic of South Africa

    Overview of the Agriculture sector

    • Population: 55.65 million (2016)
    • GDP growth (2015): 1.3%
    • GDP (2015): USD 314.6 Billion
    • Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries contributes 2.5% to total GDP (2015)
    • Value of Agriculture exports (2015): R144.4 Billion
    • Key food crops production in 2014/15: maize (9.96 Million tons), Wheat (1.75 Million tons), Sunflower (689,000 tons), Sorghum (139,000 tons)
    • National budget expenditure agriculture (DAFF) in FY 2015/2016 was R6.4 Billion

    Seed industry reports

    Seed policy instruments in the Republic of South Africa

    Key institutions in the seed sector in the Republic of South Africa

    • Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is the government ministry responsible for development of the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors.
    • South African National Seed Organization (SANSOR): was established in March 1989 when existing seed trade associations amalgamated. SANSOR is registered as a non-profit company in terms of the Companies Act, 2008 (Act No. 71 of 2008). SANSOR’s mission is to represent the seed industry both locally and internationally, as well as to protect and further the interests of the seed trade to the benefit of its members. This mission supports the vision to establish SANSOR as the leading authority for the provision of industry-related, strategic services to the South African seed industry.

    The Seed Industry in Zambia

    Overview of the Agriculture sector

    • Population: 16.2 million (2015)
    • GDP (2015): USD 21.15 Billion
    • GDP growth (2015): 2.9%
    • Agriculture GDP growth (2015): -7.7% due to the failed rains and high input prices
    • Agriculture contributes 8.5% to total GDP
    • Agriculture constitutes 9.6% of total exports
    • Key export crops: Maize and maize products, sugar, tobacco, cotton and horticulture
    • Budget allocation to FISP, as percentage of total agriculture budget: 32.5% (2015)
    • Estimated adoption of improved maize seed: 71.5% (2015)
    • Number of registered seed merchants in 2016: 50 merchants
    • In 2012/2013, 354Mt of Quality Declared Seed was produced

    Seed industry reports

    Seed policy instruments in Zambia

    • Plant Variety and Seed Act The Act provides for regulation and control of seed production, sale, import and export of seed for sowing and to provide for testing for germination and purity and seed certification.
    • Plant Breeders' Rights Act (2007) The Act provides for protection of plant breeders rights and registration of plant varieties to safe guard and streamline matters of plant variety ownership and use.
    • Key institutions in the seed sector in Zambia

    • Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI)   one of the departments in the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. The overall objective of the department is to provide a high quality, appropriate and cost effective service to farmers, generating and adapting crop, soil and plant protection technologies.
    • Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock : The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MoAL), Zambia, is one of the primary ministries of the Government of Zambia, responsible for designing, implementing and managing all government activities within the agricultural and livestock sectors.
    • The Seed Control and Certification Institute (SCCI) is a department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, whise mandate is seed sector development in Zambia. The SCCI enforces the Plant Varieties and Seeds Act (CAP 236) of the laws of Zambia and its statutory instruments. The SCCI also enforces the Plant Breeders Rights Act (No. 18 of 2007) of the laws of Zambia.
    • Zambia Seed Trade Association (ZASTA) is the umbrella association of seed companies in Zambia.

    Seed companies

    The Seed Industry in Zimbabwe

    Overview of the Agriculture sector

    • Population: 15.6 million (2015)
    • GDP (2015): USD 14.42 Billion
    • GDP growth (2015): 0.5%
    • Agriculture contributes between 15% and 18% to total GDP
    • Agriculture constitutes about 40% of total exports
    • Budget allocation to agriculture sector budget: 5.9% (2017)
    • Key statistics on maize in Zimbabwe:
      • Estimated adoption of hybrid maize seed is > 80%
      • Maize constitutes 76% of cereal diet, and 40% of overall diet
      • Area under maize is between 80% and 90% of total cereal area
      • Estimated maize yield ranges between 0.7 tons per hectare to 2 tons per hectare
      • Estimated demand of hybrid maize seed is 37,500 metric tons

    Seed industry reports

    Seed policy instruments in Zimbabwe

    Plant Breeders' Rights Act (No. 22 of 2001)

    Key institutions in the seed sector in Zimbabwe

    • Seed Services Institute is an institute in the department of Agricultural Research and Specialist Services (DR&SS), responsible for administration of Seeds Act [Chapter 19:13] of 1971, Seeds Regulations and Seeds (Certification Scheme) Notice 2000. Seed Services mandate is to administer the two Acts of Parliament, the Plant Breeders Rights Act and the Seeds Act and their enabling regulations – Plant Breeders’ Rights Regulations, Seeds Regulations and the Seeds (Certification Scheme) Notice 2000. The institute's main functions include:
      • Seed quality control and laboratory proficiency (ISTA samples) testing
      • Inspection of field seed crops and seed house premises
      • Conduct at least one winter and one summer season post-control evaluations
      • Recognition of seed varieties
      • Seed Company licensing
    • Department of Research and Specialist Services has the mandate to provide research-based technologies, technical information for advisory services and products for supporting enhanced agricultural productivity and the production of various crops and livestock (with the exception of tobacco, tea, sugarcane, pigs and forestry).
    • Crop Breeding Institute (CBI) falls under the Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanization and Irrigation Development's (AMID) Department of Research and Specialist Services, Crops Research Division. It is the government arm responsible for breeding and maintaining 13 field crop varieties as well as availing breeder’s seed for the 13 crop varieties to seed companies for further multiplication and certification.

    Seed companies in Zimbabwe



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